== 1. Explain and demonstrate how to prepare and finish new or old woodwork in the following ways: a. Staining b. Varnishing c. Painting ==
The key to a good finish is surface preparation. Whether you are staining, varnishing, or painting, the surface must be clean. How it is cleaned depends more on the suface being finished than on the method used to finish it.
Do not paint over dirt, cobwebs, or loose paint. For drywall, start by vacuuming all the cobwebs and dust. Then use a household cleaner and wash the walls down. Allow them to dry. Scrape off any loose paint. If it does not all come off, sand the zone between where it did come off and where it would not to eliminate any ridges (these ridges will become much more apparent after painting).
In kitchens, the cleaning is especially important, as surfaces will have been coated with grease. This must be removed, or the lifetime of the paint job will be severely curtailed.
In bathrooms, check for mildew. If any is found, it must be killed with a solution consisting of one part bleach, three parts water. Mildew is a living thing. If you simply wash it off and paint over it, it is sure to come back. Be careful to not get any bleach on your clothing, as it will cause it to discolor. Once you have wiped the bleach solution on the wall (or sprayed it on), allow it to sit for 15 minutes to do its work. Then rinse it off with clean water.
The next thing to do is address any defects in the walls. Do not assume that the paint will cover them. Paint is more likely to amplify imperfections than it is to cover them. Cover any holes with spackling compound, using a putty knife or a taping knife. Reseat any nail pops, setting them below the surface (one final blow with the hammer will put a small dent in the wall - this is actually desired). Then fill the hole with joint compound and wipe it off with a taping knife.
Larger imperfections should be re-enforced and covered with drywall tape and a layer of joint compound. Work the joint compound with a taping knife until it is as smooth as you can make it. Allow it to dry, then sand it. If necessary, add a second layer of joint compound. Allow it to dry and sand it.
For bare wood, sand out any imperfections and glue down any splits or nail pops. Sand over any glued areas once the glue dries (stain and varnish will show you exactly where there is glue instead of wood, and you do not want this to happen). Wipe the wood down with a cloth dampened with whatever solvent is used for cleaning the finish (that is, if the finish is cleaned out of the brushes with turpentine, wipe the wood down with turpentine). Consult the product information on the can of finish to determine the proper solvent.
Wood that has already been stained can be prepared by rubbing down with steel wool, followed by a cloth dampened with the proper solvent (see above).
== 2. Give two methods of stippling. ==
When you stipple, a glaze coat of one color is applied and then textured, revealing the undercoat of a base color.
In both cases, a glaze is mixed with latex paint at a 5:1 ratio (five parts glaze, one part paint). Stippling should be done in small sections moving from the top of the wall to the bottom so that if there are drips or runs, it will not ruin the work already completed.
With either method begin as follows:
Prepare the surface as you would for any interior painting project, repairing cracks, taping baseboards, removing outlet and light switch covers, etc.
Paint the surface a light color for the undercoating.
Allow the base color to dry completely.
Mix the paint and glaze.
=== Brush Stippling ===
Using a sponge, wet a small section of the wall. This will allow the glaze to go on fluidly.
Paint the glaze onto the dampened surface with a regular paint brush. Work the brush top to bottom, then side to side, then top to bottom again, making criss-crosses.
Stipple the wet glaze by jabbing the bottom of a stippling brush's bristles onto the surface head-on. The brush should be perpendicular to the wall. Continually alter the pattern.
Go over the surface once quickly, and then go back over it again to refine the pattern.
=== Sponge Stippling ===
Select a natural sea sponge and cut it in half to form a flat surface.
Prepare the wall and paint the base color as with brush stippling (described above).
Dip the sponge in a bucket of water and then wring it dry.
Press the sponge lightly into a tray full of paint.
Blot the sponge on a paper towel to remove excess paint.
Lightly dab the sponge on the wall, making J or X patterns.
Overlap the patterns as you move from side to side and top to bottom.
Dip the sponge in water and wring it out again occasionally.
== 3. When should a paint spray gun be used? ==
A paint spray gun should be used when painting highly textured surfaces. Examples of textured surfaces include stucco, cinder blocks, and rough-hewn lumber. These are very difficult (but not impossible) to paint with a roller or a brush.
Paint sprayers are much faster than rollers and brushes, and they are not limited to textured surfaces. If you can protect areas that are not to be painted, a sprayer can be used in almost any area. Avoid using near furnaces, ovens, and water heaters though unless you are able to extinguish (or prevent) open flames. Gas water heaters, gas ovens, gas furnaces, propane furnaces, and oil furnaces all have open flames. Remember that if the paint is flammable, so are the fumes.
== 4. Describe the proper methods for cleaning and care of paint and varnish brushes. ==
Proper cleaning starts before you begin to paint. If using a water-soluble paint, dip the brush in water. If using a paint (or varnish) that is not water-soluble, dip the brush in whatever solvent is called for. Then shake the brush to remove excess water (or solvent). Once this is done, you are ready to dip the brush in the paint for the first time.
When you are finished painting, run water over the outside of the brush, letting it flow away from the brush's ferrule and off the tip of the bristles. Then fill an empty, clean paint can (or bucket) halfway with water and add a couple tablespoons of dish washing liquid. Swirl the brush around in the soapy water, but do not jab the bristles into the bottom of the can. This will cause the bristles to develop permanent bends.
Rinse the brush in a second can (or bucket) of clear water. If the rinse water clouds up, return to the soapy water, and then rinse again. Repeat until the rinse water does not cloud up. Hang the brush to dry by the hole drilled in the tip of its handle.
== 5. Show how to use putty properly. ==
Putty is used to fill nail holes an blemishes in door and wind facings, baseboards, and crown moldings. It should have the consistency of paste. Tear off a small ball of putty and push it into the hole with your finger. Then, still using your finger, wipe it away, so that some is left in the hole, but the top is even with the surface of the wood. Allow the putty to dry before painting.
== 6. Explain the difference between exterior and interior paints. ==
Paint is made for interior or exterior use, and they are made to have different characteristics.
== 7. Make a list of ten proper color schemes for interior house painting using color swatches from a paint shop. Why are bright/loud colors not preferred? ==
Bright colors make it difficult to relax in a room, so they should be avoided in most interior spaces.
Before you go to the paint store, it might be a good idea to review color schemes. For this, we turn to the color wheel, which shows all the colors of the rainbow cycling from red, to yellow, to blue, and cycling back to red again. These are the primary colors and all the other colors in the wheel can be formed by mixing them together. If equal amounts of primary colors are mixed, we get a secondary color: red and yellow make orange, yellow and blue make green, and blue and red make violet.
Mixing a secondary color with an adjacent primary forms a tertiary color. For example, blue mixed with green makes blue-green.
Black and white are not considered colors, though they do affect the way colors look. Mixing white with a color produces a tint. Mixing black with a color produces a shade.
Many types of color schemes have been devised for all sorts of purposes, but we will focus on three:
AnalogousFrom these three recipes, you can easily make ten color schemes (just choose a couple of different "base" colors for each until you have ten).
== Monochromatic ==
In this scheme, only one color is used, but various tints and shades are combined, such as blue, light blue, and dark blue. The painter may also use various tints, such as light blue, lighter blue, and a blue still lighter than that.
== Complementary ==
Complementary colors are colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel, such as blue and orange, red and green, purple and yellow.
The high contrast between the colors creates a vibrant look, especially when used at full saturation. Complementary colors can be tricky to use in large doses.
== Analogous ==
Also called harmonious colors, are colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. Some examples are green, light green, and yellow or red, orange and yellow. Analogous color schemes are often found in nature and are pleasing to the eye.
== 8. Explain the composition of and when you use the following paints ==
=== a. Oil based ===
Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried film.
Oil-based paints are the better choice for high-traffic areas, for metal surfaces, or for surfaces that will be exposed to low temperatures. Oil-based paints also resist staining better than water-based paints.
=== b. Water based ===
Latex paint is a water-borne dispersion of sub-micrometre polymer particles. The term "latex" in the context of paint simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber (the sap of the rubber tree that has historically been called latex) is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Latex paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex binder particles and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the paint will not redissolve in the solvent/water that originally carried it.
Water-based paints are best for any areas not suited to oil-based paints. They resist fading better and are easier to apply. Clean up is also much easier, and the odor during application is far lower than with oil-based paints.
== 9. Paint the woodwork of at least four rooms. ==
The woodwork includes the baseboards, door frames, window frames, and crown molding. This requirement suggests that the woodwork be painted a different color than the walls. It could also have a natural finish (such as varnish).
== 10. Paint at least one room, showing skill in keeping paint where it belongs. ==
Paint belongs on the walls and ceilings. It does not belong on the floor, windows, outlet and switch covers, door knobs, latches, or hinges. Nor does it belong on light fixtures, smoke detectors, sprinklers, art work, mirrors, telephones, appliances, or furniture.
If the woodwork is to have a finish distinct from the walls, paint does not belong there either.
How do we keep paint where it belongs?
Lay down a drop cloth.
Tape the baseboards, windows, hinges.
Remove door knobs and switch and outlet covers.
Move furniture out of the room, or cover it with a drop cloth.
Remove or tape light fixtures.
Do not paint over smoke detectors - tape them off, and remove the tape when you are finished.Rather than taping, professional painters usually use a technique called "cutting in." With this technique, an angled brush is used, and it is kept mostly dry. It doesn't take much paint to cover trim. Put no more than an inch or two of paint in a bucket that has no lip. Grip the brush by the bristles as if you were holding a pencil. Treat the handle as if it were there only to hold the bristles together, not as something you hold the brush by.
Dip the brush no more than half in inch into the paint, then drag it dry along the wall of the bucket to remove the excess paint. Then paint a line. The outer bristles form the sharp edge of the line. Practice on the wall before you move in to the critical areas.But sometimes in spite of our best efforts, paint does go where it does not belong. When that happens don't panic - just clean off the unwanted paint.
== 11. Tell and show how to properly store unused paint. ==
The key to storing unused paint is to prevent air from reaching it. This is done by properly sealing the can. Store paint where is will not freeze.
Proper storage begins before you open the can. Open the can with a key - a special tool made just for opening paint cans. Most paint stores will give you one when you buy paint. If not, you can buy one - they're not expensive (or stores wouldn't be giving them away). Prying the lid off with a screwdriver will distort the lip making it impossible to achieve a tight seal.
Once the can is open, do not wipe a wet brush on the lip of the paint can. This forms a chime which makes it difficult to seal the can properly. Use a plastic pouring cap to pour the paint into a tray or into a small bucket. If you do get paint on the can's lip, wipe it off with a cloth before sealing it.
Place the lid on the can and tap it closed with a rubber mallet.
== Historical Notes ==
House Painting - Interior, House Painting - Exterior and Paperhanging were originally one honor called simply House Painting. They were separated into Housepainting and Paper Hanging in 1944, and then discontinued in 1956. They were re-introduced in 2002 as three distinct honors.
== References ==