[<< wikibooks] IB Music/Music History/Classical Period
== Characteristics ==


=== Contrast of mood ===
Contrasting themes in movements
Mood could change suddenly or gradually


=== Rhythm ===
Flexibility of rhythm
Pauses, syncopation, changes from long to short notes


=== Texture ===
Basically homophonic
Also intervals of complex polyphony and imitation


=== Melody ===
Tuneful, easy to remember
Some borrowed from folk or popular music
Balanced, symmetrical


=== Dynamics and the piano ===
Gradual dynamic change: crescendo and decrescendo
Piano replaced harpsichord because of finger pressure


=== The end of the basso continuo ===
Gradually abandoned during classical period
music written for amateurs--couldn’t handle figured bass
Wanted more control over accompaniment


=== The classical orchestra ===
Standard 4 sections: brass, woodwind, strings, percussion
1st violins, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses
2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons
2 French horns, 2 trumpets
2 timpani
Trombones in opera and church music
More musicians than a baroque group
Tone color more important
Strings most important
Woodwinds given melodic solos
Brass brought power, harmony, but didn’t play melody
Timpani for rhythmic emphasis


=== Classical forms ===
Several movements that contrast in tempo and character
Fast movement
Slow movement
Dance-related movement
Fast movement
Each movement could have different forms
A BA or theme and variations
Could have 2, 3, 4 contrasting themes
Sections balance each other


== Sonata form ==
aka the sonata allegro form
not the same as a sonata (which is a whole composition)
is one movement of a classical symphony (the first and sometimes the last)
there are 3 main sections: Exposition, Development, Recapitulation and sometimes a Coda


==== Exposition ====
first movement and it is in the tonic key
bridge containing modulation from tonic to new key
second theme presented in new key
closing section in new key
at the end there is a repeat


==== Development ====
new treatment of themes (can modulate through similar ways as development in a Baroque fugue: augmentation, diminution, inversion, retrograde ect)
modulations to new keys


==== Recapitulation ====
first theme is in tonic key
bridge
second theme is in tonic key
closing section is in tonic key


==== Coda ====
in tonic key


=== Contextual Features ===
The practice of the Classical period would become decisive for the sonata; the term moved from being one of many terms indicating genres or forms, to designating the fundamental form of organization for large-scale works. This evolution stretched over fifty years. The term came to apply both to the structure of individual movements (see Sonata form and History of sonata form) and to the layout of the movements in a multi-movement work. In the transition to the Classical period there were several names given to multimovement works, including divertimento, serenade, and partita, many of which are now regarded effectively as sonatas. The usage of sonata as the standard term for such works began somewhere in the 1770s. Haydn labels his first piano sonata as such in 1771, after which the term divertimento is used very sparingly in his output. The term sonata was increasingly applied to either a work for keyboard alone (see Piano sonata), or for keyboard and one other instrument, often the violin or cello. It was less and less frequently applied to works with more than two instrumentalists; for example piano trios were not often labelled sonata for piano, violin, and cello.
Initially the most common layout of movements was:
1.	Allegro, which at the time was understood to mean not only a tempo, but also some degree of "working out", or development, of the theme. (See Charles Rosen's The Classical Style, and his Sonata Forms.) 
2.	A middle movement which was, most frequently, a slow movement: an Andante, an Adagio, or a Largo; or, less frequently, a Minuet or Theme and Variations form. 
3.	A closing movement, early in the period sometimes a minuet, as in Haydn's first three piano sonatas, but afterwards, generally an Allegro or a Presto, often labelled Finale. The form was often a Rondo.


== Theme and variations ==
a basic motif that is repeated again and again that just slightly varies ie. the key, tempo, timbre, duration, ect change
each variation is the same length as the theme


== Minuet and trio ==
Minuet is a social dance of French origin for two persons
originated as a dance
it is in 3/4
it is ABA (minuet, trio, minuet)


== Rondo ==
main theme called a "refrain"
the number of themes can vary between pieces, and sometimes the recurring element is embellished or shortened in order to provide variation
the refrain alternates with one or more contrasting themes called "episodes", but are occasionally called "digressions" or "couplets"
the form can be seen as ABACA or ABACABA
commonly used in the last movement of the classical symphony


== The classical symphony ==
instrumental (orchestra)
4 movements
1. fast, in a binary form or later sonata form
2. Slow
3. Minuet and trio (later developed into the scherzo and trio), in ternary form and it is 3/4
4. fast, sometimes also in sonata form. Other common possibilities are Rondo form or sonata-rondo


== The classical concerto ==
3 movement work
1. fast (sometimes a cadenza (solo))
2. slow
3. fast


== Classical chamber music ==
was for 4-9 instruments


=== String Quartet ===
4 movements
composed for 2 violins and violas and cellosfast
slow
minuet/ scherzo
fast


=== Piano trio ===
violin
cello
piano


== Joseph Haydn ==
know as "father of the symphony" and "father of the string quartet"
used the development of larger structures out of short and simple motifs
Haydn's musical practice formed the basis of much that was to follow in the development of tonality and musical form.
He took genres such as the symphony, and slowly expanded their length, weight and complexity.
Haydn's work became central to what was later described as sonata form
his music is quite simple and sometimes boring that is how you can differentiate for your exam
his surprise symphony greatly influenced Prokofiev in his writing of the "classical symphony"


== Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ==
incorporated contrapuntal complexities
wrote over 600 compositions including that of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music.
he was a versatile composer and wrote in almost every major genre, including symphony, opera, the solo concerto, chamber music including string quartet and string quintet, and the piano sonata.
While none of these genres were new, the piano concerto was almost single-handedly developed and popularized by Mozart.
The central traits of the classical style can all be identified in Mozart's music. Clarity, balance, and transparency are hallmarks, though a simplistic notion
for the exam you can recognize him by his music typically sounding very light and playful, with complexities.


== Ludwig van Beethoven ==
Beethoven was one of the first composers to work freelance
he took what was popular and changed it
to recognize him his music was very epic sounding with lots of booms
his death marked the end of the classical period