[<< wikibooks] Dutch/Lesson 2
== Gesprek 2-1 ==
First push the button to simply listen to the following conversation.
Then study the text to find out what the meaning is. If necessary, hover your mouse over a word if you don't know it. Once you think you understand the conversation open the dropdown below to see the full translation.
Finally listen to the conversation again and see how much you understand. First with eyes open to see the text. Then do it with eyes closed.
If there are parts you do not understand when listening, go back to step 2.
Finally use the vocabulary box on the right to memorize the vocabulary material


== Pronunciation drill 2-1. Hoe heet u? ==


== Grammatica 2-1 ~ Introduction to Verbs ==
A verb (in Dutch: werkwoord) is that part of speech that describes an action. Verbs come in an almost bewildering array of tenses, moods, voices and aspects, and there are several major types: intransitive, transitive, ditransitive, and ergative verbs.  
Fortunately, the Dutch verb is not too different from the English one, although it does have a few more forms.

 I am called Standish                      Ik heet Standish 
 What are you called (named)?              Hoe heet u? 
 ...that she is named (called) 'Alice'     ...dat ze 'Alice' heet
 We are both called Robert                 Wij heten allebei Robert

The Dutch verb heten can best be translated as "to be named" or "to be called" and we see two forms of it here

a singular one: heet used with ik,u,ze
a plural one heten used for wij (as well the other plural persons).Actually there are usually three forms. This can be seen from:

In the case of heten the extra -t does not get added because the stem already ends in a -t.
In a later lesson we will revisit the verb forms associated with each person.
The irregular verb to be-zijn has a few more forms in both languages.


== Gesprek 2-2 ~ De Engelsman ==
First push the arrow button to listen to the following conversation. Then inspect the translation and hover over each word you do not know to find out what it means. Once you understand the narrative run the audio again, following along, making sure you know what is being said. Use the pronunciation box on the right to further strengthen your comprehension both in listening and in reading.


== Fill in the blank 2-2-F ==
Say the word you think that belongs in the blank and use the hover method to check your choice

Mevrouw Nieman wil Standish haar collega ______
Mr. Standish vraag of ze een beetje ______ wil spreken.
Mr. Standish bezoekt de ______.
Mevrouw Nieman vraagt of Standish Nederlands kan _____


== Vocabulary drill 2-1 ==

Of course memorizing words and expressions is an important part of learning any language and there are various ways of doing that. Have a look at the vocabulary pages. They are designed to help you acquire more words in a playful manner.


== Grammatica 2-2 ~ Inversion in questions and negations ==
You may have wondered about the order of the words in

ik geloof dat ze Alice heet.Even though Dutch verbs are not so much more complicated than English ones, word order is. In fact it is quite a bit more complicated than in English. For the moment let's just leave the above sentence for what it is and start with questions.


=== Questions ===
A question sentence in Dutch simply reverses the order of subject and verb. 
Recall: U heet meneer Standish ('You are named Mr. Standish).
It became: Hoe heet u? as a question
The normal word order of subject (u or "you") then verb (heten) is reversed and, in this case, an interrogative (hoe or "how") added. 
Additional examples:

English does the same thing when using the verb to be:

I am - are you?
ik ben - bent u?Dutch does not use the auxiliary to do as English requires in most other cases:

ik weet  -  weet u?
I know   -  do you know? (instead of "know you?")


=== Negations ===
The negative is formed by simply adding niet at the end:

Ik versta u       -  I understand you
Ik versta u niet  -  I do not understand youAgain, Dutch does not use the auxiliary to do. (In fact using it sounds very foreign.)
Even a negative question does not use to do:

Verstaat u mij niet? - Don't you understand me?


== Gesprek 2-3 ~ Het nieuwe meisje ==

In this conversation, the parties are close friends.


== Fill in the blank 2-3-F ==
Use the hover method to check your answer.

Karel vraag aan Heleen wie dat nieuwe _____ is.
Karel vindt Karolien erg _____
Heleen denkt dat Karel het lange zwarte _____ leuk vindt.
Karel is ____ op dat haar.


== Grammatica 2-2 Adjectives, demonstratives and articles ==


=== Gender ===
Where English uses the demonstrative pronoun that, Dutch uses either dat or die, recall:

dat nieuwe meisje. Die brunette. - that new girl, that brunetteSimilarly, where English uses the article the, Dutch has two possibilities: de or het, recall:

de boekhouding, het meisje. - the administration, the girlWe will revisit this phenomenon (gender) in the next lesson more extensively. There is a bit of a problem with it in Dutch.
For the moment it is enough to realize that there are two kinds of words, 

ones that take de and die
ones that take het and datFor this reason it is advisable to always memorize a word together with its definite article, e.g. as "de boekhouding", not simply as "boekhouding".

Both articles and demonstrative pronouns are a special kind of adjectives: words that are added to make the meaning of another word more precise, like new, small or exciting


=== Inflection ===
Recall that some adjectives in the dialogue ended in -e (mooie meid), sometimes they did  not (is erg mooi).
Adjectives can be used in two ways: in front of a noun and after a verb like is (a copula).  In English the adjective remains the same regardless:

The house is red (copula + adjective)
The red car (adjective + noun)Behind a copula (as predicate) this is true in Dutch as well:

Ik ben gek (I am crazy)
Ze is mooi (She is pretty)
De auto is rood (The car is red)But in Dutch they are inflected if they occur in front of a noun (as attribute). Compare:

de rode auto - the red car
een rode auto - a red car
de rode auto's - the red cars
rode auto's  - red carsNeuter words are the ones that carry the definite article het and the demonstrative dat. They are a bit different (Again: we will revisit them in the next lesson.)

het rode huis
een rood huis - a red house
de rode huizen
rode huizenAs you see the adjective is not inflected after the indefinite article een.
This also holds if there is no article:

met groot gemak - with great ease (het gemak: neuter)But:

in hoge nood - in desparate need (de nood)Thus, apart from the indefinite neuter an attributive adjective is usually inflected with -e.
There are a few exceptions, compare e.g.:

de man - the man
een grote man  - a big man
een groot man - a great man


=== Making nouns out of adjectives ===
Adjectives can be turned into nouns, by assuming their inflected form:

Dat is een grote
That is a big one
Dat is een kleine
That is a small one
Die lange heeft mijn fiets gestolen
That tall guy has stolen my bikeNotice that Dutch does not use 'one' in such cases.
There are a number of adjectives that can be turned into nouns by adding -te.  They all carry de. In English the corresponding suffix is -th:

wijd – wijdte (wide - width)
lang – lengte (long, tall - length)
groot – grootte (big - size)
breed – breedte (broad - breadth)
eng – engte (narrow - narrowness)
zwaar – zwaarte (heavy - heaviness)
heet – hitte (hot - heat)
warm – warmte (warm - warmth)
zwak – zwakte (weak - weakness)
sterk – sterkte (strong - strength)
droog – droogte (dry - drought)
hoog – hoogte (high - height)
menig – menigte (many - crowd)
duur – duurte (expensive - dearth)
gewoon – gewoonte (usual - habit)More about nouns in the next lesson.


== Woordenlijst 2 ==


== Quizlet ==
The vocabulary can be practiced as Quizlet (30 terms)


== Exercises ==


== Progress made ==
If you have studied the above lesson well you should have

been introduced to verbs in the present tense
been introduced to one element of word order: inversion
become able to ask a question
become able to make a sentence negative with niet
been introduced to adjectives and their inflection
gained vocabularyCumulative vocabulary count: 

Les 1: 116 terms, Les 1A: 89 terms. Example 1: 21 terms  Total 226 terms.
Les 2:  82 terms  Total 82 terms
Grand total 308 termsPronunciation Guide >> 

Practice Lesson 2
Cultural Lesson 2 >>