[<< wikibooks] Handbook of Management Scales/Competence
== Competence (alpha = 0.83, 0.84) ==

=== Description ===
Based on a thorough scale development and validation process, the author presents a multidimensional measure of psychological empowerment in the workplace. It consists of four dimensions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact.

=== Definition ===
Empowerment is defined as increased intrinsic task motivation manifested in a set of four cognitions reflecting an individual's orientation to his or her work role: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact (Thomas and Velthouse, 1990).
The competence (= self-efficacy) dimension of empowerment is defined as an individual's belief in his or her capability to perform activities with skill (Gist, 1987).

=== Items ===
I am confident about my ability to do my job.
I am self-assured about my capabilities to perform my work activities.
I have mastered the skills necessary for my job.

=== Source ===
Spreitzer (1995): Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 1442–1465

=== Comments ===
The mean values of all items were above five. Given that a 7-point scale was used, future researchers could slightly adapt the items in order to shift the mean values close to the center (e.g., by using terms like "very confident" instead of "confident").

=== Related Scales ===
Psychological empowerment in the workplace: meaning, competence, self-determination, impact