[<< wikibooks] Introduction to Mathematical Physics/Statistical physics/Introduction

Statistical physics goal is to describe matter's properties at macroscopic
scale from a microscopic description (atoms, molecules, etc\dots). The great
number of particles constituting a macroscopic system justifies a
probabilistic description of the system. Quantum mechanics (see
chapter ---chapmq---) allows to describe part of systems made by a large
number of particles: Schr\"odinger equation provides the various accessible
states as well as their associated energy. Statistical physics allows to
evaluate occupation probabilities
P
l
{\displaystyle P_{l}}
of a quantum state
l
{\displaystyle l}
. It introduces
fundamental concepts as temperature, heat\dots
Obtaining of probability
P
l
{\displaystyle P_{l}}
is done using the statistical physics principle
that states that physical systems tend to go to a state of ``maximum
disorder [ph:physt:Reif64], [ph:physt:Diu89]. A disorder measure is given
by the statistical entropy\index{entropy}
The statistical physics principle can be enounced as: