The Grand Inquisitor/Cover
This book is an annotated text for 3 noteworthy chapters from Fyodor Dostoevsky's book The Brothers Karamazov. The three chapters considered here are The Grand Inquisitor, Rebellion, and The Devil, which are considered to be some of the most powerful chapters from the book, and some of the most influential chapters in the canon of western literature. Eventually this book could be expanded to include other chapters from this book, although it is unlikely that the entire book will ever be annotated here.
These three chapters revolve around Ivan Karamazov, an educated intellectual and admitted atheist in Russia. The first two chapters also include Alyosha Karamazov, a counter-point to Ivan, who is a monk in training, and is well known for his qualities of compassion, unconditional love, strong faith, and trustworthyness.
= Introduction =
== The Grand Inquisitor ==
== Who Is This Book For? ==
== What Will This Book Cover? ==
This book will cover three chapters from the book The Brothers Karamazov: Rebellion, The Grand Inquisitor, and The Devil. These three chapters center around the character Ivan, and represent some of the most powerful critiques of organized religion. Of particular interest here is Roman Catholicism.
It may be possible for this annotated text to eventually be expanded to cover additional chapters from the book. However, considering its size, it is unlikely that the entire book will ever be annotated here. Besides the three covered initially, there are several other important chapters worth annotating.
== How Will This Book Be Arranged? ==
The three chapters presented in this annotation are not subdivided into sections. However, for the sake of clarity, this book will divide the chapters into individual component pieces, at places where there is a logical breaking point.
The first section of the book will contain some basic information about The Brothers Karamazov, including information about the author, information about the plot, and information about the characters. The second section of the book will contain the annotations, complete with the full text of the passages. The full text will appear in shaded boxes on the left of the page, and discussion and annotation will appear in plain text on the right side of the page.
== Where To Go From Here? ==
Readers who have not yet read The Brothers Karamazov are encouraged to read it in its entirety. The full text can be found at wikisource: Wikisource:The Brothers Karamazov.
= History =
The Brothers Karamazov was intended to be the first part of a trilogy of books, but Dostoevsky died shortly after the first installment was published. The three chapters described here, The Grand Inquisitor, Rebellion, and The Devil have also been published as a stand-alone reader.
= Fyodor Dostoevsky =
...a short biography of the author
= The Brothers Karamazov =
Here we are going to briefly explain some of the plot of this book. Parts that bear no strong influence on the three chapters we will be annotating will be omited.
== History ==
Fyodor Karamazov, the father of the house, is a crude character. He is married twice and pays little in the way of love or respect to either wife. From his first marriage, he has a child named Dimitri. From his second wife, he has two children, Ivan (the older), and Alyosha (the younger).
Fyodor pays little attention to any of his children. After his wives die, the children are brought up by the servant Grigory and his wife Marfa. The children are then separated and sent out to live with relatives of their respective mothers.
Fyodor, on a bet, makes love to a mentally challenged girl in town, named Stinking Lizaveta. Lizaveta bears a child named Smerdyakov, and dies during the birth. Smerdyakov is also raised by Grigory, and eventually grows up to become a servant of Fyodor. It is assumed by many that Smerdyakov is the biological son of Fyodor, but this fact is never proven. As with his other children, Fyodor largely ignores Smerdyakov, and does not treat him like a son.
Through a series of events, all three brothers return to the house of their father. Dimitri and Fyodor have been quarreling over Dimitri's inheritance (of which Fyodor claims there is none left).
== Religion ==
Alyosha is a monk in training at the local monastery, while Ivan is a well-educated and influential atheist. Despite their strong differences in the area of religion, the two brothers seem to get along fine and respect each other. The two brothers have not seen each other much before arriving at Fyodor's house, so they spend time talking at a local bar. Their conversation, which inevitably turns to the topic of religion, is recounted in the chapter on Rebellion. After this conversation, Ivan relates to Alyosha a "poem" he has been working on, known as The Grand Inquisitor.
== Love ==
Dimitri, a military service man, has captured the heart of a young woman, Katerina Ivanova, the daughter of a military commander. Katerina feels some amount of love and loyalty to Dimitri, but Dimitri does not return the feelings. While on duty in the military, Dimitri learns that Katerina's father is in debt and is at risk of losing his rank and doing time in jail for it. Dimitri gives the money to Katerina, and asks nothing from Katerina in return. It is because of this event that Katerina feels bound to Dimitri, and constantly refers to herself as being in his debt.
While Katarina feels hopelessly bound to Dimitri, who does not return her affections, Ivan has fallen for Katerina. Katerina has fallen for Ivan as well, but because of her debt to Dimitri she does not allow a relationship to form between them. The conflict between his love for Katerina and his loyalty to his brother is a major stressor for Ivan.
Dimitri is not in love with Katerina primarily because he is in love with another woman, Grushenka. Fyodor also has a romantic interest in Grushenka so father and son begin competing for her attention. Combined with the financial problems between them, the fight over Grushenka is a a major source of contention.
== Murder ==
Ivan, upset about his own relationship with his father, and also upset about his relationship with Katerina, decides to leave town for Moscow. Smerdyakov says a few surprising things that catch Ivan off guard. First Smerdyakov says that without Ivan around, there were no strong men in the house to protect the father from Dimitri. Smerdyakov has told Dimitri the secret code of knocks that will cause Fyodor to open the lock on his bedroom door at night. Also, Smerdyakov mentions that he is planning to "have a seizure" the following night when Ivan is absent, thus leaving the entire house empty, except for Fyodor.
Ivan, not understanding the correlation between all these facts, or making some conscious effort to ignore them, leaves for Moscow the next morning. Predictably, things go the way Smerdyakov had anticipated: He had a seizure the following night, Dimitri used the secret signal to gain entry to Fyodor's bedroom, and Fyodor is found murdered the next day. Ivan, having been summoned to attend the funeral and the trial, questions Smerdyakov about the strange things he said in their last conversation. Smerdyakov admits to killing Fyodor, and framing Dimitri for the crime. More troubling then this, is the fact that Smerdyakov blames Ivan for the whole event. Smerdyakov told Ivan the plan, albeit in a circuitous way, and made it clear that if Ivan leaves for Moscow, Fyodor will get murdered. Ivan did go to Moscow, and therefore Smerdyakov took this as permission to murder Fyodor.
Ivan, upset about this new revelation, and desperate to save Dimitri from being wrongly punished for the murder develops a brain fever and begins having hallucinations.
== Trial ==
= Characters =
== Fyodor Karamazov ==
== Dimitri and Alyosha ==
== Grushenka ==
The problems between Dimitri and Fyodor escalate when they both fall in love with the same woman: Grushenka. The quarrel becomes physical, and Dimitri storms out of the house. Ivan asks to meet Alyosha at a local bar to talk. They talk briefly about Dimitri (which is what Alyosha is concerned about), but then Ivan recites the "poem" that he has written, "The Grand Inquisitor".
== Smerdyakov and Ivan ==
Ivan is a respected intellectual, but Smerdyakov is revealed to be highly intellegent in his own right. Smerdyakov has a high amount of respect for Ivan, although that respect is rarely returned. Smerdyakov is an epileptic, and is prone to occasional, debilitating seizures which can last for long periods of time. He also hints occasionally that he is capable of pretending to have such a seizure, and is very convincing at it.
= Rebellion =
== Rebellion ==
In this chapter, Ivan relates several news stories that he has collected over the years. Each story is about a child that has been abused, or murdered, or otherwise made to suffer. Ivan claims that if god allows these children to suffer, Ivan will not accept any invitation into God's kingdom. After this, Alyosha says "That's rebellion!".
== Part 1 ==
Ivan here is referring to a passage from the book of Matthew, 22:35:
Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying, Master, which is the great commandment in the law? Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.Jesus claimed that "love thy neighbor" was the second most important law of god. It is by claiming to not be able to follow this law (and providing some justification against it) that Ivan starts this discussion.
Father Zossima is Alyosha's mentor at the monestary, and a well-respected local figure.
== Part 2 ==
When Ivan says "Christ-like love" he is referring to unconditional love towards your neightbors and your enemies. Ivan here is claiming that people in general are incapable of this kind of love by their nature, and are therefore incapable of following the laws of Jesus.
This is an important point in the narrative. Here, Ivan turns the focus of the conversation squarely onto the issue of children, and not on man-kind in general. He does this for two reasons: he says that restricting his conversation to children will limit his argument, but also because people are compassionate towards children.
"the apple" here refers to the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, from the garden of eden. When Adam and Eve ate the fruit (which later came to be identified with an apple) they committed what is now known as "original sin". Saint Augustine first wrote about the concept of original sin, a fallen state of humanity that is inherited by children from their parents.
Ivan starts by saying that it is "incomprehensible" that children should be made to suffer because of their original sin. If an innocent person should not suffer for the sins of another person, then children should not suffer for the sins of their ancestors.
Ivan goes on to talk about how even the most cruel and evil people still love children. He justifies this by saying that children are so small in stature that they are essentially different creatures from regular adult humans. When Ivan is talking about the affection or love that adults generally feel towards children, he is talking about a patronly love, not a sexual or romantic kind.
== Part 2 ==
Here Ivan mentions, almost without explanation stories he has heard of cruelties commited by the Turks against the Bulgarians. He uses these stories to illustrate the fact that men can be much more cruel then any animal can be, thus elliminating a possible model for the devil. If the devil was an invention, he must have been based off other men, and not off some cruel animal.
== Part 3 ==
Driving to the heart of the matter, Ivan says that man has created the Devil "in his own image and likeness." Alyosha immediately likens this to the theory that man has created God in a similar fashion.
It's at this point that Ivan first mentions his "collection" of stories. These stories, as we shall see, have a particular focus that has Ivan very troubled.
This passage is a little bit obscure, and it is difficult to understand all of Ivan's context-sensitive references. However, the point of this passage is quite clear: every society has manners of harming other people. Also, the ways that one society hurt people may seem to be barbaric to other societies, but all the methods are essentially equivalent.
Here Ivan recounts the story of a man named Richard, who was raised as an animal, and grew up to become a thief and a murderer. In prison, awaiting death, Richard is converted into a christian and educated in reading and writing. On the day of his execution, Richard is actually celebrating his own death as a holy act.
Here, Ivan discusses the story of a master and a horse. The horse is tired from pulling "too heavy a load", and stops pulling. The master, in a rage, lashes the horse and beats it repeatedly and for some time. Finally, having no untouched skin left to beat, the master lashes the horse on it's eyes. This finally motivated the horse to pull the load.
Ivan uses this story as an example that people experience satisfaction from inflicting pain, thus reinforcing his thesis that the Devil was created in the image of evil men.
In the same vein of the previous story, Ivan recounts now the story of a man and his wife beat their seven-year-old daughter with a birch rod. The beating lasted for more then 10 minutes, and grew harder and more savage as time went on.
When brought to court, instead of being punished for abusing their daughter, the couple is praised for properly correcting their child. As we shall see later, Ivan has a special place in his heart for abused children, and the stories he relates later focus more on them.
= Rebellion (Part 2) =
== Part 4 ==
Ivan's collection is a set of stories, accounts, and anecdotes of evilness. Predominantly, his collection focuses on the stories of tortured and abused children. Throughout this discussion Ivan never cites or refers to any of his sources, although he does employ a few quotes in his monologue that the reader can assume came from one of these stories. His knowledge of quotes from these stories is indicative perhaps that he has spent some time studying these stories.
Ivan mentions here that the people who are the most evil towards children are often viewed as being perfectly respectable to other adults. These people appear to just be normal, although they have a certain penchant for torturing children. Notice that these people stand in stark contrast to the people that Ivan discussed earlier, the prisoners and criminals who showed love to children. The way people act towards children is often far different from the way people act towards other adults. Often, as Ivan will discuss below, it is easier for people to be cruel towards children than it is to be cruel to other adults.
Ivan discusses the story of a young girl who is tortured and abused by her parents. The abuse started out as physical abuses: beating, thrashing, and kicking. However, the abuse generally graduated to "more refined" abuse. Ivan says this line, which he will reference several times again:
Can you understand why a little creature, who can't even understand what's done to her, should beat her little aching heart with her tiny fist in the dark and the cold, and weep her meek unresentful tears to dear, kind God to protect her?The child does not even understand the abuse, and may not even realize that this treatment is not normal treatment. Ivan even refers to her tears as being "unresentful", indicating that the child does not even fault her abusers. Ivan also makes another statement that is going to serve as the basis for much of his future discussions:
Do you understand why this infamy must be and is permitted? Without it, I am told, man could not have existed on earth, for he could not have known good and evil.Without knowledge of good and evil, man would not have been on earth as we know it, but instead would be living in the paradise of Eden for all eternity. With the knowledge of good and evil, however, evils such as the abuse of young children are not only possible but actually inevitable.
== Part 5 ==
Alyosha is the perfect literary counter-point to Ivan. While Ivan is educated and atheistic, Alyosha is compassionate and religious. When Ivan offers to stop telling these stories about children, Alyosha responds "Nevermind. I want to suffer too". To caring and compassionate Alyosha, even hearing stories about tortured children is tantamount to suffering.
This story is about a military man and an owner of some land who retires from the service. He is convinced of his own power over his own subjects, and hunts with his team of dogs. One day, a child throws a stone and injures the paw of one of the man's hunting dogs. In response, the man strips the child naked, and let's his dogs tear the child apart in front of his mother.
Ivan asks, almost rhetorically, "What did he deserve?" To which Alyosha replied "To be shot." Even though Alyosha blurts this out without thinking, it is uncharacteristic of someone who is supposed to embody christ-like love.
== Part 6 ==
Ivan is happy about Alyosha's statement, because it does serve as some justification to his arguments. Even with an argument restricted to children, he has gotten Alyosha to abandon Jesus's second commandment.
Ivan's statement "I understand nothing" is very reminiscent of Socrates, and helps to serve as an example both of Ivan's learning, and of his arrogance.
When Ivan says "I won't give you up to your Zossima", he is saying that he wants to prevent Alyosha from becoming a full monk at the monestary.
== Part 7 ==
== Part 8 ==
= The Grand Inquisitor =
== The Grand Inquisitor ==
The Grand Inquisitor is Ivan's "poem", which he recites after Rebellion. In part, the discussion from Rebellion is Ivan's way of judging whether Alyosha is ready to hear the poem. Ivan determines that Alyosha is ready to hear it, and so tells the story, with occasional questions from Alyosha to break the narrative. It is important to note that while Ivan refers to it as a "poem", that the tale itself is prose.
In the story, Jesus (referred to by Ivan only as "He", or "Him", with a capital H) returns to earth during the Spanish Inquisition. He brings a dead girl back to life, and performs other miracles among the wounded, sick, and dying people in town. The Grand Inquisitor, riding through town with his procession, sees Him, and has Him arrested. The remainder of the story involves the "conversation" that the Grand Inquisitor has with Jesus. The word "conversation" in the previous sentence is a bit of a misnomer, because throughout the rest of the story, The Grand Inquisitor speaks to Him, and He listens silently.
He never speaks, but his silence is applauded by the Inquisitor, who says "Thou hast no right to add anything to what Thou hadst said of old." Aloysha asks whether He is completely silent throughout the conversation, to which Ivan replies:
"That's inevitable in any case, the old man has told Him He hasn't the right to add anything to what He has said of old. One may say it is the most fundamental feature of Roman Catholicism, in my opinion at least. 'All has been given by The to the Pope,' they say, 'and all, therefore, is still in the Pope's hands, and there is no need for Thee to come now at all."Another point that the Inquisitor makes frequently is that He has given humanity a certain amount of freedom, and that any additional messages from Him would encroach upon that freedom. Also, continues the Inquisitor, that freedom that was given to humanity by Jesus' original message was actually a penalty, and that the church has needed to remove those freedoms from the people.
== Part 1 ==
== Part 2 ==
== Part 3 ==
== Part 4 ==
== Part 5 ==
The "temptations" the Inquisitor is referring to here are the three temptations of Jesus, described in Matthew chapter 4 in the Bible:
And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple, And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him.
The same passage is described in Luke chapter 4:
And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread. And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God. And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine. And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence: For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee: And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
Even though the two accounts differ in the ordering, the same three temptations are given by the devil to Jesus:
Turn stones to bread.
Worship the Devil in exchange for worldly power.
Attempt to hurt yourself, to prove that you are protected by God.The Inquisitor goes on to say that these three temptations are profound, which he will describe later.
== Part 6 ==
== Part 7 ==
= The Grand Inquisitor (Part 2) =
== Part 8 ==
== Part 9 ==
== Part 10 ==
== Part 11 ==
== Part 12 ==
== Part 13 ==
= The Devil =
== Part 1: Ivan's Condition ==
The person narrating the story is a man from the town who speaks of all the events from The Brothers Karamazov with a certain amount of omniscience. For instance, the narrator is able to recount this story although it is obvious that Ivan is alone. However in other situations, the narrator does not know everything, especially concerning the murder of Fyodor Karamazov. the opening line of this chapter is illustrative of this point:
I AM NOT a doctor, but yet I feel that the moment has come when I must inevitably give the reader some account of the nature of Ivan's illness.The narrator admits a certain shortcoming in his literary omniscience, but yet he is able to speak frankly about events that he did not witness.
== Part 2: Ivan's Guest ==
While sitting and staring at the far wall, a person simply "appeared to be sitting there". Notice that the narrator does not claim the stranger appeared from thin air, but almost says that the person had been there all along, unnoticed. Notice again the absurdity of the narrator: he can recount the events of this night, although even he seems to be somewhat confused by the presence of this new man in the room. Ivan also does not appear to be alarmed or startled by this person. He never inquires where the visitor came from, and does not greet him the way a proper gentleman would have greeted a new visitor.
The passage starts out with the words And so he was sitting almost conscious himself of his delirium, again pointing out that Ivan was somehow expecting to have a problem with "brain fever". Multiple stresses had been piling up: the murder of his father, the imprisonment of his brother, and the fact that he has been pursuing Katerina Ivanova, who was desperately in love with Dimitri (love only strengthened because Dimitri was wrongfully accused and in jail).
The stranger in the room is described in a particular way, as a Russian gentlemen who was reasonably fashionable although dated. His clothing is described as being nice but old and generally "shabby". The first line of the second paragraph pushes the idea home, that the man had every appearance of gentility on straitened means. At the time of writing The Brothers Karamazov, Russia had only recently abolished serfdom, and it is in the terms of the feudal system that the visitor is described. Notice the following descriptions, specifically:
He had unmistakably been, at some time, in good and fashionable society, had once had good connections, had possibly preserved them indeed, but, after a gay youth, becoming gradually impoverished on the abolition of serfdom, he had sunk into the position of a poor relation of the best class, wandering from one good old friend to another and received by them for his companionable and accommodating disposition and as being, after all, a gentleman who could be asked to sit down with anyone, though, of course, not in a place of honourLook at this description as a metaphore for the devil: The rise of atheism or agnosticism among the educated creates a poorness for supernatural beings, where the dark ages only years before had been a boon. He is also being described as having "good connections" which have been preserved, and that he could sit down with anybody. The devil, representative of sin, certainly is nobody's stranger.
== Part 3: Truth ==
The visitor is now described in terms of being a personal relation, where previously he was described as being everybody's acquaintance.
Ivan had gone to Smerdyakov's house to inquire about Katerina Ivanova. However the two talked about Fyodor almost exclusively, and forgot entirely about Katerina. This passage, presented two chapters before The Devil explains the situation:
When, after his conversation with Alyosha, Ivan suddenly decided with his hand on the bell of his lodging to go to Smerdyakov, he obeyed a sudden and peculiar impulse of indignation. He suddenly remembered how Katerina Ivanovna had only just cried out to him in Alyosha's presence: "It was you, you, persuaded me of his" (that is, Mitya's) "guilt!" Ivan was thunderstruck when he recalled it. He had never once tried to persuade her that Mitya was the murderer; on the contrary, he had suspected himself in her presence, that time when he came back from Smerdyakov. It was she, she, who had produced that "document" and proved his brother's guilt. And now she suddenly exclaimed: "I've been at Smerdyakov's myself!" When had she been there? Ivan had known nothing of it. So she was not at all so sure of Mitya's guilt! And what could Smerdyakov have told her? What, what, had he said to her? His heart burned with violent anger. He could not understand how he could, half an hour before, have let those words pass and not have cried out at the moment. He let go of the bell and rushed off to Smerdyakov. "I shall kill him, perhaps, this time," he thought on the way.Katerina claims that she has been convinced by Ivan that Dimitri is guilty of the crime. However, Katerina also went to see Smerdyakov about the issue, which indicated to Ivan that perhaps Katerina was not convinced about Dimitri at all. Ivan went to Smerdyakov's apartment to ask about why Katerina had gone to see Smerdyakov, and what she had said to him. However, during the meeting, Smerdyakov admitted to killing Fyodor, with the statement:
"Aren't you tired of it? Here we are face to face; what's the use of going on keeping up a farce to each other? Are you still trying to throw it all on me, to my face? You murdered him; you are the real murderer, I was only your instrument, your faithful servant, and it was following your words I did it."Notice how even though Smerdyakov admits to killing Fyodor, he still blames Ivan for the murder. Smerdyakov claims he was only acting as Ivan's "instrument". The guilt that he had convinced Katerina against Dimitri, and the guilt that somehow he had persuaded Smerdyakov to murder Fyodor are weighing on Ivan, and it is because of this weight that he could not remember about Katerina. However, there was the persistant feeling that he had forgotten something, that even though he had gone to see Smerdyakov, and did get answers to some of his questions, he still hadn't concluded all his business.
It is the man across the room who reminds Ivan about the contents of his subconscious. This man knows that Ivan is trying to remember what precisely he was forgetting, and he also knows precisely what was forgot. And when he brings it up, Ivan has a most unusual response:
"Ah, yes." broke from Ivan and his face grew gloomy with uneasiness. "Yes, I'd forgotten... but it doesn't matter now, never mind, till to-morrow," he muttered to himself, "and you," he added, addressing his visitor, "I should have remembered that myself in a minute, for that was just what was tormenting me! Why do you interfere, as if I should believe that you prompted me, and that I didn't remember it of myself?"There is almost some measure of familiarity between Ivan and his guest, which prompts the question whether Ivan has seen this man before, and if not, was Ivan expecting him.
== Part 4: Ivan's Realization ==
Ivan is aware of his own delirium, and also seems to be aware that the person in the room is a figment. Ivan also refers to "last time", when the stranger put Ivan into a "fury". This is clearly not Ivan's first encounter with this stranger, which helps to explain the ease with which Ivan speaks to him.
== Part 5: Aloysha ==
The stranger is referring to a conversation several chapters previously, where Alyosha confronts Ivan in the street at night. With Aloysha speaking first:
"No, Ivan. You've told yourself several times that you are the murderer."
"When did I say so? I was in Moscow.... When have I said so?" Ivan faltered helplessly.
"You've said so to yourself many times, when you've been alone during these two dreadful months," Alyosha went on softly and distinctly as before.Ivan has been blaming himself, although he does not quite know why. There has only been one time when Ivan ever mentioned it out loud, and refers to that incident next:
"You've been in my room!" he whispered hoarsely. "You've been there at night, when he came.... Confess... have you seen him, have you seen him?"
"Whom do you mean- Mitya?" Alyosha asked, bewildered.
"Not him, damn the monster!" Ivan shouted, in a frenzy, "Do you know that he visits me? How did you find out? Speak!"
"Who is he? I don't know whom you are talking about," Alyosha faltered, beginning to be alarmed.
"Yes, you do know. or how could you- ? It's impossible that you don't know."Ivan is talking about previous meetings with this stranger, and assumes that Alyosha must be aware of it because Alyosha is a monk in training, a holy man.
When the stranger mentions Alyosha again, Ivan becomes petulant. It's interesting to note how Ivan is both aware that this stranger is a delusion, but also treats him as a separate entity. His insults, referring to the visitor as a "flunky", are self-deprecating because this visitor his really Ivan.
== Part 6: One and the Same ==
== Part 7: The Two are Different ==
= The Devil (Part 2) =
== Part 8 ==
== Part 9 ==
== Part 10 ==
== Part 11 ==
== Part 12 ==
== Part 13 ==
== Part 14 ==
== Part 15 ==
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This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
== 2. VERBATIM COPYING ==
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
== 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY ==
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
== 4. MODIFICATIONS ==
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified version.
Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
== 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS ==
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
== 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS ==
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
== 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS ==
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
== 8. TRANSLATION ==
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
== 9. TERMINATION ==
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.
== 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE ==
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
== 11. RELICENSING ==
"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.
"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.
An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
= How to use this License for your documents =
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.