[<< wikibooks] AP Chemistry/Acids and Bases
== Definitions ==


== Polyprotic Acids ==
Can donate more than one hydrogen ion. (Bronsted-Lowry)


== Titration ==
Titration is the combining of a known concentration solution with an unknown concentration solution. The titration is stopped at the equivalence point, where all of the acid or base has been reacted. Polyprotic acids have more than one equivalence point. This is described by the equilibrium law of volumetric analysis: 
  
    
      
        M
        V
        n
        =
        
          constant
        
      
    
    {\displaystyle MVn={\text{constant}}}
   or simply 
  
    
      
        
          M
          
            1
          
        
        
          V
          
            1
          
        
        
          n
          
            1
          
        
        =
        
          M
          
            2
          
        
        
          V
          
            2
          
        
        
          n
          
            2
          
        
      
    
    {\displaystyle M_{1}V_{1}n_{1}=M_{2}V_{2}n_{2}}
   , where 
  
    
      
        M
      
    
    {\displaystyle M}
   is the mass, 
  
    
      
        V
      
    
    {\displaystyle V}
  is the volume of titrating acid drained from burette to the conical flask containing titrated base of volume a little more than that untitrated base in pippet, 
  
    
      
        n
      
    
    {\displaystyle n}
   is the number of moles of that acid.


== Conjugate Acids and Bases ==
Conjugates differ by one hydrogen ion. Strong acids have weak base conjugates, and vice versa.


== Water Dissociation Constant ==

  
    
      
        
          K
          
            w
          
        
        =
        [
        
          H
          
            +
          
        
        ]
        [
        O
        
          H
          
            −
          
        
        ]
        =
        
          10
          
            −
            14
          
        
      
    
    {\displaystyle K_{w}=[H^{+}][OH^{-}]=10^{-14}}
   at 298K.